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Combinatorial benchmarks for SAT solvers

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The structure of some formula recipes in cnfgen is based on graphs, which can be either simple undirected graphs, biparite graphs, directed graphs or dag (directed acyclic graphs). It is possible either to read graphs from files or to generate them internally. The cnfgen tool accepts and saves graphs in the following file formats.

Different file formats are suitable for specific graph types, as shown in this table.

Graph type Description GML DOT KTH lists DIMACS Matrix
simple simple undirected graph Yes Yes Yes Yes No
digraph directed graph Yes Yes Yes Yes No
dag directed acyclic graph Yes Yes Yes No No
bipartite bipartite graphs Yes Yes Yes No Yes

If the file ends with one of the extensions .kthlist, .gml, .dot, .matrix, .dimacs then the program assumes that the file is the corresponding format. It is possible to specify the format using the -gf option in the command line, which is particularly useful when the graph is read from standard input or written on the standard output, or when the file extension does not match its file format.

GML and DOT format — bipartite graphs representation

The convention adopted to specify bipartite graphs in DOT and GML formats is that to use a simple graph, where each vertex has either the attribute bipartite=0 or the attribute bipartite=1 set. This is the same convention used by graph library NetworkX.

KTH adjacency list format

[Full specification by Jakob Nordström]

The kthlist adjacency list graph format has been introduced by Jakob Nordström of the Proof Complexity research group at KTH Royal Institute of Technologyas as an efficient and simple way to represent sparse graphs for applications in SAT solving and proof complexity.

The format can specify all four types of graph, but the exact interpretation of the file depends a bit on the context.

KTH predecessors list format — digraph

The kthlist format as a straightforward interpretation as a directed graph, as described in the format specification.

KTH adjacency list format — dag

When CNFgen expects a directed acyclic graph, it expects the file in kthlist format to express very explicitly the topological order of the vertices. Namely the sequence of \(1\),… ,\(n\) is expected to be a topological order from sources to sinks of the vertices, and formula constructions in CNFgen will respect this order.

KTH predecessors list format — simple

If a vertex \(v\) has \(u\) in its adjacency list then the \(v\) must be explicitly listed in the adjacency list of \(u\), otherwise the file is considered not well defined. Nevertheless CNFgen is liberal and does not expect that. For CNFgen an edge \(\{u,v\}\) considered to be in graph when either \(u\) is in the list of \(v\), or when \(v\) is in the list of \(u\), or both. Naturally all simple graphs generated by CNFgen are correct kthlist files according to the strictest interpretation of the format.

Here’s an example of how a graph with missing inverted edges is interpreted as an undirected graph. The file

c This is a DAG of 5 vertices
1  : 0
2  : 0
3  : 1  0 
4  : 2  3  0  
5  : 2  4  0

represents the directed acyclic graph


and the simple undirected graph


KTH predecessors list format — bipartite

The interpretation of a file as a bipartite graph is essentially the same as it is for undirected graphs, with the difference that the bipartition is made explicit by listing just the adjacency lists of the vertices on the left side.

c listing only left side vertices (bipartite graph)
1 : 7  8  9 0
2 : 6  7  9 0
3 : 8  9 11 0
4 : 8 10 11 0
5 : 6 10 11 0

The difference with the undirected graph is specification is important. Notice that according to the format spec the previous example is not a correct kthlist file for an undirected graph because it lacks the adjacency lists of the right side vertices too. The following is the same graph, but encoded as an undirected graph.

c listing left and right side vertices (undirected graph)
1 : 7  8  9 0
2 : 6  7  9 0
3 : 8  9 11 0
4 : 8 10 11 0
5 : 6 10 11 0
6 : 2  5  0
7 : 1  2  0
8 : 1  3  4 0
9 : 1  2  3 0
10 : 4 5 0
11 : 3 4 5 0


Using simple files where bipartite files are expected (deprecated)

CNFgen parser is forgiving in the sense that when an edge in an undirected graph is specified only in one of the two adjacency lists, CNFgen still accept the input (which formally is not a legal kthlist files). This means that any kthlist file for bipartite graphs could be interpreted as a file for undirected graphs as well.

It makes sense to allow the same in the opposite direction, then. Unfortunately this requires to fix some ambiguity. We stress that using kthfile undirected graphs when a bipartite graph is expected could lead to some surprises and therefore it is deprecated.

The precise rule of how a simple graph can be interpreted as a bipartite graph is as follows. Vertices are colored with either left (L) or right (R) colors during the parsing of the file. At the beginning the coloring is completely unspecified, and colors are assigned to some vertices every time the parser process the adjacency list of a vertex. When the parser finds an adjacency list

i : <j1> <j2> <j3> ... <jk> 0

it attempts to color as L : R R R ... R. If this is compatible with the coloring computed so far, it moves to the next list. Otherwise it attempts the coloring R : L L L ... L. If neither of this attempts work, then the parser emits an error.

Essentially an error occurs when a vertex \(v\) has been already assigned by to one color because of previous lines, and a new line forces \(v\) to the other color.

If a vertex has no color by the end of the parsing (i.e. the vertex did not occur in any adjacency list and its own adjacency list is not specified) then it is assigned the color R.

Remarks this bi-coloring process is arbitrary and greedy, hence it is possible that the parsing fails even if the graph was actually bipartite but the bipartition was not discovered. Furthermore the same graph may get different bipartition depending on how it is represented as a kthlist file. Notice that:

  • isolated vertices may be colored either L or R, depending on whether the file specifies it adjacency list or not, respectively.
  • the order of the vertices is important. The first time a vertex occur the parser attempts first to color it L and then R.

Matrix format

The matrix format is suitable to represent the adjacency matrix of a bipartite graph, where rows correspond to vertices on the left side and columns to vertices on the right side.

The file consists on two numbers r and c separated by whitespace, followed by a whitespace separated sequence of zeros and ones of length \(r\times c\). Here's a well formatted example.

5 6
0 1 1 1 0 0
1 1 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 1 0 1
0 0 1 0 1 1
1 0 0 0 1 1

which represents the bipartite graph